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中国农民的第三大发明

乡村旅游再认识

2016年09月01日 08:54 来源:欢乐彩_欢乐彩网址_主页 作者: 刘奇

欢乐彩

欢乐彩  dangqian,huanlecaiguoyijinrudazhonglvyoushidai,xiangcunlvyouburukuaisufazhanqi,guimo、zhiliang、xiaoyibuduantisheng。erzuoweixianzaiyuelaiyuehuodeyizhonglvyouyetai,xiangcunlvyouyijingjianjianchengweinongminjiuyezengshou、nongcunjingjifazhandezhuzhanchang。zaixiangcunlizhaohuinongnongdexiangchou,tiyanbieyangdelequ,xiangcunlvyouyishishijiexingdechaoliu。jinnianlai,tongxiangdalifazhanxiangcunlvyouhezhuangyuanjingji,bingyongxianlewucun、daoxiangrenjia、hongshancunjingqudengweidaibiaodeyidapixiangcunlvyoushifandian。

  “yiyeyiwang”yinlingtongxiangjingjizhuanxingshengji,zaiquanyulvyoudedabeijingxia,fazhanxiangcunlvyoushitishenglvyouchanyeshilihechengshimeilidebiranlujing。fazhanxiangcunlvyou,duiyucujinnongminzengshouzhifu、jianxing“liangshan”lilun、huanlecaimeilixiangcun,youzenyangteshudeyiyi?jintian,benbaoxuanzhaileguowuyuancanshishiteyueyanjiuyuanliuqide《zhongguonongmindedisandafaming——xiangcunlvyouzairenshi》。yiqinenggouzaixiangcunlvyoufangmian,daijidajiagengduoqidiyusikao。

  bianzhean

欢乐彩  gaigekaifangyilai,zhongguonongminyouzhewushuhuihuangdefamingchuangzao,nongcungaigedejingyanwuyibushiguangdanongmindeshouchuang。danjiusuzaocaifushenhuadequntiweilieryan,zuiyoudaibiaoxingdemoguoyusancidadefamingchuangzao,jituozhanchanyekongjianchuangzaocaifushenhua、tuozhandiyukongjianchuangzaocaifushenhua、tuozhansiweikongjianchuangzaocaifushenhua。

欢乐彩  zhongguonongmindesandafaming: “santuo”chuangfushenhua

  gaigekaifangyilai,zhongguonongmindediyidafamingshituozhanchanyekongjianchuangzaocaifu,jiyongmailiangdeyuqianyouyichanchongjinerchansanchanchuangzaocaifu。shangshiji80niandaizhongqi,zhongguonongminzaitudichengbaohoujiatingnengliangdedaochongfenshifang,wenbaowentihenkuaijiejue,shouliyouleyuqian,tamenjiukaishijingshangbanchang,“cuncundianhuo,huhumaoyan”dexiangzhenqiyebofa,xingchengyigegezhuanyehu、zhuanyecun、zhuanyepian、zhuanyeshichang,yiduzhanjuzhongguogdpdebanbijiangshan。xiangzhenqiyedexingwangfada,tuijinlechengshiguoqigaige,congerquelilehuanlecaiguoshehuizhuyishichangjingjidiwei,xiangzhenqiyedegongjizaitedinglishitiaojianxiagongbukemei。zheishizhongguonongmindediyidafaming,zhongguonongminyongzheiyifamingchuangzaolediyigecaifushenhua。shangshiji80niandaizhonghouqi,xuduoxianxiangmeiniandouzhaokaidahuibiaozhangshouruguowanyuandenonghu,gengyouyibufenxiongxinbobodenongminzuilihanzhe“wanyuanhubusuanfu,shiwanyuanhugangqibu,baiwanyuanhucaisuanfu”。

  dierdafamingshituozhandiyukongjianchuangzaocaifu,jijinchengwugongjingshang,tongguochushoulaodongchuangzaocaifu。shangshiji80daizhongqikaishi,duanduandeershiduonianshijian,2.5yinongminyongjiaochuaikailechengmen,zouchutudiwugongjingshang,yongzuidiliandechengbengaosutuijinzhongguodegongyehuahechengshihuajincheng。yigerenleilishishangguimozuidaderenqun,zaizuiduandeshijiannei,yongruzuimeiyouzhunbeidechengshi,chengtuoqiguimozuidadezhizaoye,chuangzaochushuliangzuiduodelianjiashangpin,yizuidiliandechengbengaixieleshijiejingjibantu,zheishizhongguonongmindedierdafaming。zhongguonongminyongzheiyifaming,bujinshizijihuoqulebizainongcungaochushubeidelaowushouru,erqieshizhongguozaiquanqiujingjipubianxiahuadebeijingxia,yilushangyang,gaogemengjin,yijuzhaixiashijiedierdajingjitideguiguan,chengjiule“zhongguozhizao”deshijiepinpai,keweigaishiqigong。

欢乐彩  disandafamingshituozhansiwei,wuzhongshengyouchuangzaocaifu。yourenxichengruishijingjishi“sanwu”jingji: wuyangongye(jundao、shoubiao)、wubenmaimai(zhengquanjinrong)、wuzhongshengyou(lvyoukaifa),lvyoujingjibeichengweishiwuzhongshengyoudejingji。jinnianlai,yuelaiyueduodenongminyituoxiangcunjiyouziyuandalifazhanxiangcunlvyouchanye,buduantansuolvyoujingjidequanxinmoshi。xiangcunlvyoudehexinshiyuanzhiyuanweidexiangcunwenhua,tayinongcunziranhuanjing、nongyeshengchanhuodong、nongminshenghuofangshiweilvyoudexiyinwu,buguangjuyoulvyou、guanguang、xiuxian、yangshengdengduozhonggongneng,haijuyouchuantong“gengduwenhua”、“tianrenheyi”dezhexueyiyun,jiehechuantongminjurufujiantulou、guangdongdiaolou、zhejiangzhugebaguacun、anhuihongcun、anhuixidi、hunanzhangguyingcundengxiangcunwuzhiwenhuayichan,yijijianzhi、nisu、mudiao、leqi、yanzoudengfeiwuzhiwenhuayichan,gongtongzuchenglejijumeixuejiazhihelingxingdexiangjiandameituhua,shihuode、xianshibande“qingmingshanghetu”。

  juyouguanziliaotongji,2013nianquanguogeleixiuxiannongyejingyingzhutiyijingchaoguo180wanjia,nianjiedaiyouke9yiduorenci,yingyeshouru2700yiyuan,daidong2900duowanshouyi。2014nian,guoneilvyouyida36yirenci,shi1984niande18beiduo,qizhongxiangcunlvyouyida12yirenci,zengzhangshitouxunmeng。2015niandi,xiangcunlvyouyoumengzengdao22yirenci。youguanfangmianyuce,“shisanwu”mokenengzengzhangdao65-70yirenci,yourucizhizhongderenzhudongdaoxiangcunxiaofei,shichangqianjingxiangdangkanhao。zaichengshiweihuanbingshi,renmenrenweichengshihao,douwangchengliji,dangchengshibingyuyanyulieshi,renmencaifaxian,yuanlaixiangcunzuiyiju,xiangcunlvyouyijingchengweishijiexingchaoliu。

  disandafaming: xiangcunlvyoudewudachuangfushouduan

欢乐彩  yishifandanpipa,yisanchandaidongerchanyinlingyichanchuangzaocaifu。nongminqianliangcifamingzhizaierchansanchanzhongdazhuanzhuan,zuoweidisancifaming,xiangcunlvyouzefanxiangsiwei,yisanchandaidongerchanyinlingyichan,shiyiersanchanrongweiyiti,zhongyangjiaxiaojiechenghuanlian,zhongzhiyeweiyangzhiyetigongchanpin,zhongyangyeweijiagongyetigongchanpin,zhongzhiyangzhijiagongyegongtongweixiaoshouyetigongchanpin,zhong、yang、jia、xiaoyougongtongweiwuzhongshengyoudelvyouyetigongchanpin,gehuanjiedapodandadudoudegeju,hudonghezuo,shouweixiangjie,tongzhougongji,xingchengnongyechanyeliyigongtongti,shichanyejiazhideyizhengtitisheng。xianganhuishengshitaixiande“juchashan”,jiang“nongchanpin+xiuxian+yuanchandilvyou”youjironghezaiyiqi,jiangnongchanpinbeihoudeziranyurenwenhuanjingzhanxianjixiaofeizhe,zengqiangxiaofeizhedexiaofeitiyan。zaishixianxiaofeizhefangxinxiaofeidetongshi,yetishengleqizishendejiazhishuiping。

欢乐彩  ershiwuzhongshengyou,jihuoxianzhiziyuanshengfacaifu。xiangcunlvyoujihuolexianzhidelaodongli。balaorenfunvzheigenongcundijiacanzhilaodongliqunti,jiezhunongji、nongyi、nongyan、nongshijifengguangjieshaoheminsubiaoyan、fengweicanyindeng,wanchengxianggaojiagaozhidezhuanbian。xianbingmayongfujincunzidewaiyure,rangcunminsuzhipubiantisheng,laodongjiazhipubiandedaotigao。xiangcunlvyoujihuolelishiyicundeguji、mianlinhuisundewuzhiwenhuayichan,jihuoleminjianshidaichuanchengdejiyi、binyumiejuedefeiwuzhiwenhuayichan。yiduanxiliu、yizuoduanqiao、yikegushu、yichulaozhai、yikuaicanbeidouyousushuobujindegushi。shanxiyangxianzhuhuanziranbaohuqu,shenwawenhuaneihan,jiezhuhuanniaodeaiqingzhongzhen,dazaonianqingrenzhuiqiudehunyinshengdian,xiyinquanguogedinianqingrendaozheilijuxingjiehunyishi。xiangcunlvyouhaijihuolexiansanzhufang。renchengnongmingongyufangzideguanxishiliangzhilaoshu,bazijizaijiagaidefangzijilaoshuzhu,daochenglizuzhulaoshuzhudefangzi。huanlecaiguoyou2yiduonongmingong,nongcunzhishaoyoujiqianwantaoxianzhifang,xiangcunlvyoukeyibanongminjilaoshuzhudefangzigaizaochengjilaobanzhudebieshu。bujinruci,hehuanpandeshatanriguangyu,riguangkeyimaiqian;shenshanlaolinlidefuyanglizihuxi,kongqikeyimaiqian;qingjieshanxidefeipuliuquan,shuiyekeyimaiqian。zheixieziguyilaibeirenweishiquzhibujinyongzhibujiedeziranzhiwudoukeyiyonglaishengcai。

  sanshizuodishengcai,buxusige“qianwan”,zhaoyincaifu。fazhanxiangzhenqiyenongminbixukaozijiqianshanwanshuidipao、qianfangbaijidixiao、qianxinwankudizhao、qianyanwanyudiliao。jinchengwugongjingshang,nongminyuanzoutaxiang,jirenlixia,paojiabieqin,qilizisan,bianzhangmoji。yiwandagongqian,sandailibielei。hunanshaoyanghuangjingxiangyou132gehaizishimu,beichengwei“wumaxiang”,quanguoxianyou6100wanliushouertong,3000duowanliudongertong,haiyounanyijishudeliulangertong。kaifaxiangcunlvyou,nongminwenjuzijijiazhongyikaowangluozhanshixinxi,dengkeshangmen,jileizhiyejingyan、jileirenmai、jileishichang、jileijineng、jileizijipinpaidezhimingdu、meiyudu,dazaobainianlaodian。tongshi,jinxiangjiayuanhongli,jiayuanhonglishinongminzuidadewuxingzichan,zaiyingjishiwu、ziyuanpeizhi、maodundiaochu、hubanghuzhudengfangmian,shinongminshishidaidaiquzhibujinyongzhibujiedebaoguicaifu。“jiayuanhongli”dexiangxinli、guishuganshirenmenbuzhiyinwaibudefuligengyouhouerqingyixuanzelikai。zhejianghuzhoushi2014nianjiedaixiangcunyoukechaoguo2300wanren,jingyingzongshouru40yi,xiangcunlvyouyifugaiquanshi25%denongcunrenkou,duinongminzengshougongxianlvchaoguo40%,nongminzubuchuhu,nianrenjunlvyoushouruzengjia627yuan。

欢乐彩  sishizhengtituijin,tishengwenming,quanfangweiningjucaifu。kaifaxiangcunlvyoubujinyouliyuwuzhitiaojiandehuoqu,haiyouliyujingshenwenmingdetisheng,fanxiangcunlvyoufadadedifang,jingjishehuidouxianchuyipianfanrongjingxiang,wenmingchengduyurijuzeng。shouxian,xiangcunlvyoujifaxinnongcunhuanlecaideneishengdongli,buyongquandao,buxudongyuan,nongminzhudongyinrugezhongxiandaiyuansu。tongguokaifaxiangcunlvyou,baxiangcunyouzhiziyuanliuzhu,tongshibachengshiwenmingyinruxiangcun,jintianshichengshizibenguoshengdeshidai,chengshizibendaochuxunzhaochukou,xiangcunlvyoubachengshizibenxiyindaoxiangcun,weixinnongcunhuanlecaipeiyuneishengxingdewuzhijichu。qici,xiangcunlvyouhaijihuolequntijingshenzhuangtai。xiangcunlvyoutongguoxingfudecanyu、kuailedetouruhezijuedechuangxin,gaibianlenongcunyibufenqingnian“weifuxianlan”deexi,tamenbaoshizhongri,wusuoshishi,fangqilezhuiqiugenggaoshenghuoshuipingdefendou,ziganxiachen。ribensanpuzhanzhu《xialiushehui》yishucengchangxiaoriben、zhongguo。zheishiyouyuwuzhiwenmingdeguokuaichengzhangchaoguolejingshenwenmingdefazhansudueryinqidequanjushiheng。zhonghuaminzuzuiyouxiudepinzhijiushi“erqin”——qinjian、qinlao,rudiule“erqin”,jiuwanle。xiangcunlvyouhaijihuoleyanyanyixidefengtuminqing,hanchuan、shehuo、longdeng、hunsangjiaqu、liyi、jinjidengtesexisu,shixiangcunhuolihuanfa,chaoqipengbo,wendinglecunzhuangdebaoyoulianghenongcunrenkoudebaoyouliang。zaizhe,fazhanxiangcunlvyouhaiyouzhuyuxiaojieshengshidexiangchou。xiangchouduofashengyuluanshihuoshengshi,luanshixiangchoushiyizhongwufazhuijidetongkuqiangua,shengshixiangchouzeshiyizhongkeyixiaojiedetianpinmeiwei。renmenzaixiangcunlvyouzhongjikezhaodaozheizhongganjue。xiangcunlvyoushirenmenzaixiandaiwenmingzhongtiyanzhechuantongwenming,zaichuantongwenmingzhongxiangshouzhexiandaiwenming,ranglianggewenmingbujinmeiyou“gelie”,erqiezaihuxiangjiaorong、xianghuyicunzhonggongshenggongrong,tongbufazhan,chuangzaochujidadejingshencaifu。ribenyinongminweijiwaichuyouziliuxiadangniancunzhuangdejiyi,bayizuozhishengxiajishirendekongcun,yongdaocaozuochengchuzoudemeigecunmin,anfangzaigejia,huifujibairencunluoderenao,gongguijiadeyouzixinshang,gongliuxiadecunminhuainian,yegongwaidideyourencanguancunzidangniandefanrong。

  wushidaijichuandi,weizisunjileicaifu。fazhanhaoxiangcunlvyou,bujinweizisunhoudaidazaoleyigejubaopen,shidaishouyi,yeyilaoyongyidijiejuelenongcunzhangqideshengtaihuanbaowenti。nongcundeyixiediqu,ziranziyuanyuanbenfeichangfengfu,neilidenongminbenkeyijinqingxiangshoudazirandeenci,danyouyuduozhongyinsuzhiyue,zhangqishoushehuilengluo,zhangqiyuanlijingjizengzhangzhongxin,tianyamiaomiao,dijiaoyouyou,jiaotongbubian,xinxibisai,jishiyongyouchongyudeziyuan,quewufarongrushichang,ziyuannanyizhuanhuanchengziben。2009nianxiaji,sichuanxinwenwangdeyiweijizhezaimianyangyantingxianlongquanxiangcuncaifangshifaxian,neilidemitaoshule,danyouyudichushenshan,jiaotongbubian,wufawaixiao,nongminfangqianwuhoudemitaozhinengrenyoulanzaishushanghuoweizhu。zaiyixiezijizizudeziranjingjizhuangtaixia,neilidenongminshengchanshenghuofangshijiqiluohou,zhangqiyuanlixiandaiwenming,“buzhiyouhan,wulunweijin”。zaijiashangwaibutourukaifabuzuhejiaotongtongxun、jiaoyuweisheng、nongtianshuilidenggonggonghuanlecaidequeshi,“qingshanlvshui”bianchengle“qiongshaneshui”dediqu,nongmindepinkundaijixiangchuan。kaifaxiangcunlvyou,chengshiyouzhiziyuanzaiyouzhongxiaxiang,guoshengdechengshizibenwaiyixunzhaochulu,zhenghaopengshangxiangcunfazhandexuqiu。yushi,fazhanxiangcunlvyouzuizhijiezuibianjiedichanshengle“sizeng”chengxiao,jinongminzengfu、nongyezengxiao、nongcunzengmei、zhengfuzengshou。yuanbenshuaibaidenongcunhuixunsubianchenglvhua、meihua、lianghua、jinghua、yinghuahewenhuadexinnongcun,nongminzijuexingdong,jiangshizhongguoxiangcunfasheng“wuqiannianweiyouzhibianju”,weizisunhoudaijileixiakeyizhangxiangsishoudewuzhicaifu。youqizaichengshibingyuelaiyuezhongdebeijingxia,xiangcunrangrenmengengxiangwang。

  gengzhongyaodeshi,xiangcunlvyoutongguo“ren”defazhan,jiejuele“kou”dewenti。zaixiangcunlvyoufazhanzhong,nongminweileyingzaoyoukejiejing、jiankang、weishengdelvyouhuanjing,yangchengle“limingjiqi、sasaotingchu”dechuantongwenmingweishengxiguan,bingqiezaicongshixiangcunlvyouzhongwulunshijingyingguanli、jiedaihuanlecai、chanpinjiagong,nongmindouhuodelebiyaodejinengpeixunhezhiyeyijishichangjingyan,zheixiebuduantigaodezishensuzhiherenliziben,bujinkeyiyouxiaoezhidangdainongmindepinkun,gengnengcongyuantoushangzuduanpinkundedaijichuandi,shidangdinongminzizisunsun、shishidaidaichediyuanlipinkundexunhuanguaiquan。

欢乐彩  fazhanxiangcunlvyouhaishibaoyuxiufunongcunshengtaihuanjingdezuijiashouduan,weizisunhoudailiuxiaqingshanlvshui。jihuajingjishidai,wenbaowentishijuedaduoshuzhongguorenguanzhudejiaodian。gaigekaifangdezhamenyidakai,renmenweilejiejuewenbao,buxiyiqiedaijiadipinmingjiakuaifazhan,youqibuguyiqiedizhaoshangyinzi。yixienongcundiquyijingzhujianbiancheng“lajimantianfei,wushuidaochuliu”dehairenjingxiang。xiangcunhuanjingwuranyichenggaoxuanzaihuanlecaitoudingdedamokelisizhijian。zuoweihuanlecaiyedezhongyaozuchengbufen,lvyouyexianglaibeiyuweishi“wuyanchanye”heditanchanye。xiangcunlvyouyongshengtaiwenmingdelinianzhongxinfaxianxiangtuwenmingdezishentedian,wanqudedaolu、xiazhaidejiedao、cuoluodetufang;xiangcunlvyouyibaoyuzishenlianghaodeziranshengtaiziyuanweitianzhi,bingjiang“lvshuiqingshan”zhuanhuancheng“jinshanyinshan”,shixianxiangcunshengtaiyouji、kechixudefazhan。nongminzuidongdelvyoujingdiandeliangdashengmingxian: shengtaihuanjinghebiaozhunhuanlecai,tamenduihuanjingzhenaibaohudezijuexingkongqiantigao,qichengxiaobifabuduoshaofadianhuozhengcedouyaodadeduo。

  laozi《daodejing》diliushisanzhang: “tianxiananshibizuoyuyi,tianxiadashibizuoyuxi”,shiyiwannongminzhifushidangjinzhongguodediyidengnanshi,yeshidiyidengdashi,nongminzijifaminglebanfa、zhaodaoleluzi,gejizhengfujicongshisannongyanjiuzheyingshenruxiaqu,yindaobangzhuzhichitamencongyichuzheyan,congxichurushou,zuohaoxiangcunlvyouzheipiandawenzhang,tongshiqianglituijingongjicezhidugaige,yishiyingnongminfazhanxiangcunlvyou、chuangzaoxinyiluncaifushenhuadezhiduxuqiu。

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